Natural Resources of compostela Valley


Compostela Valley Province has a total land area of 4,666.93 sq. km. (based on Republic Act No. 8470), which is 14.73% of the region’s total land area of 31,692.74 sq. km., and 1.5% of the country’s landarea of 300,000 sq. km. Of the total land area of the province, 1,530.97 square kilometers (sq. kms.) are
alienable and disposable (A & D) and 3,135.96 sq. kms. are forestlands, accounting to 19.49% and 26.53% of the region’s A & D and forestland areas, respectively (Map 2).

Among the component municipalities of the province, Laak has the largest share (20.29%) of land area to the province, followed by Monkayo (14.85%), and New Bataan (14.75%). Mawab, on the other hand, has the least share (3.63%) of land area to the whole province of Compostela Valley. (Table 25)


Table 25.             Land Area and General Land Classification by  Municipality , Compostela Valley Province

Municipality *Land Area (Sq. Km.) % of Distribution Land Classificaiton
A & D Forestland % of A&D % of Forestland
Compostela Valley 4,666.93 100.00 1,530.97 3,135.96 32.80 67.20
1. Compostela 187.50 4.02 118.72 68.78 63.32 36.68
2. Laak 947.06 20.29 208.19 738.87 21.98 78.02
3. Mabini 412.25 8.83 78.92 333.33 19.14 80.86
4. Maco 244.40 5.24 81.05 163.35 33.16 66.84
5. Maragusan 394.29 8.45 117.66 276.63 29.84 70.16
6. Mawab 169.52 3.63 99.97 69.55 58.97 41.03
7. Monkayo 629.89 14.85 245.13 447.76 35.38 64.62
8. Montevista 265.00 5.68 113.25 151.75 42.74 57.26
9. Nabunturan 245.29 5.25 118.51 126.78 48.43 51.57
10. New Bataan 688.60 14.75 200.79 487.81 29.16 70.84
11. Pantukan 420.13 9.00 148.78 271.35 35.41 64.59

Source:  PENRO-DENR 2015 Data (*Based on Republic Act 8470)

Map 2. General Land Classification, Compostela Valley

Map 2. General Land Classification, Compostela Valley


Compostela Valley Province has the following soil types, to wit:

  1. Broad Alluvial Plain. This soil type is found in Compostela, Montevista, and Monkayo. It is generally characterized by lowland elevation with a soil depth of 100 cm. deep to very deep;
  2. Lower River Terraces. This soil type is found in Monkayo and Montevista. Its elevation is lowland with a soil depth of 50-100 cm.;
  3. Collu-Alluvial Fans. This soil type is found in Compostela and Monkayo. Its elevation is generally lowland, with a soil depth of 100 cm. to very deep;
  4. Low and High Sedimentary Foothills and Ridges. These are found in Monkayo and Compostela. It is characterized by an elevation of lowland and upland/hilly land, its soil depth is 50-100 cm.;
  5. High Limestone Hills. This soil type is found within Monkayo and Montevista. It is characterized by upland or hilly land elevation. Its soil depth is between 50 cm. and 100 cm. moderately deep;
  6. High Volcanic Complex. This type is found in Compostela, Montevista, and Monkayo;
  7. Limestone Mountains. This type is found in Montevista and Monkayo. Its soil depth is 50-100 cm.;
  8. High Meta-Sedimentary Mountains. This soil type is found only in Monkayo. Its elevation is characterized by upland/hilly land;
  9. Complex Volcanic Mountains. This type is found in Compostela, Monkayo and Montevista;
  10. Cambangan Clay Loam. This soil type is found in Nabunturan, Mawab, Maco, Mabini, Pantukan, and New Bataan. Its soil depth is 50-100 cm. deep. This type is good for agricultural purposes such as for rice paddies; it may also be used for upland crops with simple drainage system;
  11. Camansa Clay Loam. This soil type is found in Nabunturan, Mawab, Pantukan, Maco, Mabini, and Maragusan. This is good for forest production due to its topography;
  12. San Miguel Silty Clay Loam. This type is found in Mawab, Pantukan, Maco, Mabini, and Maragusan. It is good for diversified upland field crops. The dominant feature of this type is leveled to nearly level, well drained, medium texture and deep to very deep soil;
  13. Mountain Soil Undifferentiated. This is found in Nabunturan, Maco, Mabini, Maragusan, Pantukan, and New Bataan. This type of soil classification is good for forestland. Aside from this, it does not have much agricultural significance;
  14. San Miguel Silty Clay Loam. This is found in New Bataan;
  15. Common Clay Loam. This is found in Pantukan and Laak.


The province has large areas suitable for forestry plantation specifically for exotic species and for forest protection due to the slope characteristics of majority of its areas (Table 26). As reflected in the slope description per municipality, New Bataan has the largest areas within the above 50% slope followed by Mabini. Compostela has the largest areas suitable for rice production, followed by Montevista and Monkayo, while Maragusan tops in terms of areas having large share of suitability for urban uses. (Table

Table 26.    Land Suitability (in sq. km.) By Municipality, Compostela Valley Province

Municipality Suitable for Irrigated Rice Suitable for Fishpond Suitable for Cultivated Annual Crops Suitable for Perrenial Tree and Vine Crops Suitable for Forestry Plantation (exotic species) Suitable for Production Forest (native species) Suitable for Protection Forest Suitable for Urban Uses Total
Compostela 45.21 - - 70.42 23.77 29.10 15.91 3.09 187.50
Laak 2.00 - 30.29 274.46 565.29 53.66 19.92 1.44 947.06
Mabini - .50 .92 76.99 33.07 61.77 238.49 .51 412.25
Maco 1.67 .31 9.80 64.93 38.10 23.62 101.63 4.34 244.40
Maragusan 12 - 46.57 8.52 157.73 5.02 155.00 9.45 394.29
Mawab 10.54 - 6 95.69 50.28 5.71 - 1.30 169.52
Monkayo 18.73 - 67.64 156.84 90.88 183.67 173.21 1.92 692.89
Montevista 35.77 - - 75.03 141.12 10.63 - 2.45 265.00
Nabunturan 67 - - 59.57 35.11 14.45 67.22 1.94 245.29
New Bataan 13.50 - - 186.16 97.80 60.21 329.80 1.13 688.60
Pantukan 3.05 1.36 26.28 115.05 124.54 6 140.81 3.04 1420.13
Compostela Valley 209.47 2.17 187.50 1,183.66 1,357.69 453.84 1,241.84 30.61 4,666.93

Source: BSWM Xl (based on 2015 data gathered)


Flooding and landslide are among the two incidences of natural hazard occurred in the province. Flooding is usually happened when there is heavy downpour, while landslide events are either rain induced or earthquake-induced.

Municipalities that are highly prone to flooding during continuous heavy rainfalls are Compostela, Mawab, Montevista, Nabunturan, New Bataan, and Monkayo. Nabunturan and Compostela have larger areas highly affected to flooding over other municipalities. (Table 27)

On the other hand, municipalities of Mabini and Pantukan have large areas highly affected by rain induced landslides based on t he GIS generated hazard mapping. Nonetheless in a specific location, there are 5 barangays in the province that are highly susceptible to landslide, namely, Masara of Maco, Tuboran of Mawab, Canidkid and New Cebulan of Montevista, and Mt. Diwata of Monkayo. The landslide susceptibility and its level of severity had been mapped out by the Bureau of Mines and Geo-Sciences. In summary, a total of 136 puroks and 47 sitios in 113 barangays in the province are subject to varying severity of landslides (Table 28).

Table 27.   Areas Prone to Flooding, By Municipality and By Susceptibility Level Compostela Valley Province

Municipality Area (has.) Susceptibility Level Affeced Area (has.) % Affected Area to Total Land Area
Compostela 18,750 High 5,985.000 31.92%
Maco 24,440 High 334.828 1.37%
Moderate 48.880 0.20%
Low 95.316 0.39%
Maragusan 39,429 High 812.237 2.06%
Mawab 16,952 High 3,049.665 17.99%
Moderate 557.720 3.29%
Low 2,510.591 14.81%
Monkayo 69,289 High 4,150.411 5.99%
Moderate 1,039.335 1.50%
Low 630.529 0.91%
Montevista 26,500 High 5,731.950 21.63%
Nabunturan 24,529 High 9,816.506 40.02%
Moderate 166.797 .68%
Low 264.913 1.08%
New Bataan 68,860 High 13,131.600 19.07%
Pantukan 42,013 High 226.870 0.54%
Moderate 3,075.352 7.32%

Source: GSI generated (based on 2015 data gathered)

Table 28.    Number of Lanslide Prone Barangays, Puroks, & Sitios By Its Level of Susceptibility, Compostela Valley Province

Level of Susceptibility Number of Barangays Number of Puroks Number of Sitios
Moderate 56 0 0
Moderate to High 4 0 0
High 48 125 45
Very High 5 11 2
Total 113 136 47

Source: Mines and Geo-Sciences Bureau (based on 2015 data gathered)

Moreover. the coastal municipalities of the province such as Maco, Mabini, and Pantukan are highly susceptible to Storm Surge event.


There are 3 identified fault lines that cut through Compostela Valley Province. The first faultline is traversing through the municipality of Tarragona, Davao Oriental and it cuts through the hinterlands in the northeastern portion of New Bataan going to barangays Panansalan and Manggayon of Compostela and to four more barangays situated in central part of Monkayo, namely, Tubo-tubo, Salvacion, Baylo, and Awao. The second faultline slices through the provinces of Davao Oriental, Compostela Valley, and Davao Del Norte. In Compostela Valley, it traverses in barangay Napnapan of Pantukan, barangay Golden Valley (Maraut) in the hinterlands of Mabini, barangays Sangab, Panangan, and Manipongol of Maco; and in barangays Malinawon, Tuboran, and Sawangan of Mawab. The third one runs through the barangays of Amorcruz, Kaligutan, and Macopa, all of Laak. This fault line also cuts across Tagum City, Davao DelNorte.

Moreover, there is one volcano identified in the province, named Mt. Leonard Kniasef. It is located at New Leyte, Maco, and it is considered an active volcano by Philvocs. It was believed that the said volcano had erupted 1000


The province has a total of 2.681 sq. km. water body in the forestland. It is 32.76 percent of  Region XI’s total water body area of 7.8397 sq. km., the 2nd biggest area in the region. Various forms of water bodies are available in the province (Table 29), which serve as sources for water needs of the populace. Table 29 below shows the number and location of the form of water bodies present in the province. Springs which are either hot or cold registered with the most in number at 314, followed by creeks with 115. Lakes which are found only in Mabini, Maco, and Maragusan recorded with the least innumber. (Table 29)

Tabl 29. Number of Water Bodies, By Category and By Location / Municipality, Compostela Valley Province

Municipality Rivers Creeks Waterfalls Spring
(cold & hot)
Compostela 3 3 4 - -
Laak 9 12 2 - -
Mabini 2 4 2 1 (hot) 1
Maco 5 5 7 1 (hot) 1
Maragusan 2 11 16 2 (hot), 3 cold 1
Mawab 8 19 1 2 (hot), 300 cold -
Monkayo 3 8 2 1 (hot) -
Montevista 3 27 0 2 cold -
Nabunturan 2 16 1 1 hot -
New Bataan 7 5 4 - -
Pantukan 3 5 0 1 hot -
Compostela Valley 47 115 39 314 3

Source: MLGU-MENROs and Provincial Tourism Office, Compostela Valley (based on 2015 gathered)


There eighteen (18) major river basins in the Philippines covering 37.50% of the total land area of the country. Map 3 shows the location of these basins.

Map 3. Location of 18 Major River Basins  in the Philippines

Map 3. Location of 18 Major River Basins in the Philippines

Compostela Valley is one of the provinces in the Davao Region which is traversed by the Agusan River Basin. The updated Agusan River Basin (ARB) Master Plan showed that ARB covers 3 regions, 8 provinces, 5 cities, 41 municipalities and 1 bay area. Specifically, the regions covered by the Agusan River Basin are Region 10 (Northern Mindanao), Region 11 (Davao Region), and Region 13 (Caraga Region) where Butuan Bay is situated.

The Agusan River Basin (ARB) which has drainage area of 11,937 square kilometers and estimated length of 120 kilometers, is geographically divided into three (3) sub-basins, namely: upper ARB, middle ARB and lower ARB. Upper ARB covers the provinces of Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte and Davao Oriental, while middle ARB covers Agusan Del Sur, Bukidnon and Surigao del Sur, and lower ARB for Agusan del Norte and Misamis Oriental. All municipalities in Compostela Valley comprised the Upper ARB, together with the municipality of Kapalong in Davao Del Norte and municipalities of Boston and Cateel of Davao Oriental. Agusan River Basin is the biggest river traversing Compostela Valley, and with its tributaries, it provides the major irrigation needs of the province (Map 4).


Other river traversing Compostela Valley is the Hijo River with drainage area of 689.22 square kilometers and an estimated length of 64 kilometers covering the municipalities of Maco, Mabini, Pantukan, Mawab and Nabunturan. Another rivers that are also considered important and critical water bodies in the province because of their substantial contributions to the people’s livelihood are the Naboc River in Monkayo and the Kingking River in Pantukan. These rivers are in critical condition as they serve as the drainage of the wastes from the mining operations in the respective municipalities.

Surface water outputs are utilized in the irrigation system and in other water system projects in support to agricultural development, while utilization for ground water is primarily domestic purposes.

Nonetheless, the hydro-geological characteristic of the province is considered very favorable. Potable water through spring development is found in all municipalities.

Map 4. Location Map of Agusan River Basin

Map 4. Location Map of Agusan River Basin


Forestland as presented earlier constitutes the largest portion of the province total land area at 67.2 percent or 3,135.96 square kilometers. It covers old growth forest, second growth forest (residual forest), mossy areas, mangroves, plantation use forest, brushland, open/grassland, and cultivated areas. Brushland comprises the largest area at 45.23 percent, followed by second growth forest or residual forest at 22.29 percent. Mangroves, on the other hand, have the least area of 0.21 percent of the forest cover. (Table 30)

Table 30. Forest Land in Square Kilometers, By Type of Forest Cover, Compostela Valey Province

Type of Forest Cover Area (sq. km.) % to Total
TOTAL 3,135.96 100.00
1. Brushland 1,418.37 45.23
2. Second Growth Forest (Residual Forest) 699.00 22.29
3. Cultivated Areas 433.36 13.82
4. Old Growth Forest 373.61 11.91
5. Plantations 152.86 4.87
6. Mossy 26.90 0.86
7. Open/Grassland 25.38 0.81
8. Mangroves 6.48 0.21

Source: DENR-PENRO, Nabunturan, Compostela Valley (based on 2015 data gathered)

Forestland is further classified into production and protection forestland. Production forestland with an area of 1,656.74 square kilometers is delineated with residual forest, for plantation use, and for open and access areas. Protection forestland which is also called amenity forest with an area of 1,479.22 square kilometers that comprised areas categorized under NIPAS (National Integrated Protected Areas System) and non-NIPAS as delineated under Republic Act 7586.

There are three (3) areas delineated as NIPAS in the province. The two were proclaimed already in the year 2000 while the other one is still under House Bill No. 262. These NIPAS areas are described below.


The area covering 6,106 hectares more or less (subject to actual ground survey), is located at the  municipality of Mabini particularly to include Pindasan Island mangrove wilderness area, Kopiat Island and surrounding portions of the Davao Gulf.  It was declared as protection area on May 31, 2000 through the Proclamation No. 316.


The Mainit Hotsprings and Protected Landscape in the municipality of Nabunturan covering 401 hectares more or less (subject to actual ground survey) was declared as protected area under Proclamation No. 320 dated May 31, 2000.


The Mount Tagub-Kampalili Ranges Protected Landscape situated in the municipality of  Maragusan containing an area of 42,953 hectares (subject to actual ground demarcation), was already proposed under House Bill No. 262 and will be referred to as the Mt. Tagub-Kampalili Ranges ProtectedLandscape.

 The referred non-NIPAS areas are the second growth forest, mangrove and fish sanctuaries, buffer  strips and easements, salvage zones along foreshore lands, freshwater swamps and marshes, protected agricultural areas (under RA 8435 and RA 8048) and other protected areas.


There are four (4) watershed areas identified in the province which are given high priority by the provincial government in collaboration with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). These are: 1) Upper Agusan River Basin, 2) Andap Watershed, 3) Hijo River Watershed, and 4)  Kingking-Matiao River Cluster Watershed.  (Table 31)

Other watershed areas in the province were also identified. Upon the implementation of the Upland Development Program in Southern Mindanao in the years 2000-2007, collaborations were forged and institutionalized thru Memorandum of Agreements between and among the concerned Municipal and Barangay LGUs and the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (PENRO/CENRO) for the co-management of these watershed areas covering a total of 14,334 hectares. (Table 32)

Table 31.  Critical Watershed Areas, Compostela Valley Province

Watershed Area Location Area (in hectare) Condition
Total 184,719.50 Critical
1. Upper Agusan River Basin New Bataan and Maragusan 118,779.50 Critical
2. Kingking Matiao River Cluster Watershed Pantukan 36,665.00 Critical
3. Hijo River Watershed Maco 22,500.00 Critical
4. Andap Watershed New Bataan 6,775.00 Critical

Source: PENRO-DENR, Compostela Valley Province (based on 2015 data gathered)

Table 32. Watershed Co-Management Areas, Compostela Valley Province

Municipality Watershed Name Barangay(s) Covered Area (has.)
Provincial declared protected watershed co- management areas (2009-2014)
Maragusan Mapawa 10.69
Maragusan Magcagong 10.79
New Bataan Matikdaon Kahayag 12.19
New Bataan Mamada Andap 16.43
Compostela Purok 3 Tamia 12.51
Compostela Tingale-Canube San Miguel 48.99
Compostela Purok 12 San Miguel 266
Compostela Purok 1B Mangayon 500.00
Monkayo Lanzones-Kaimito Salvacion 10.26
Monkayo Lanzones-Kaimito San Isidro 20.04
Montevista New Cebulan 14.28
Montevista Guyon Bankerohan Sur 49.986
Nabunturan Apogon Katipunan 10.28
Nabunturan Batinag Tagnocon 23.498
Mawab Tan-awan Malinawon 10.00
Mawab Libertad Malinawon 13.60
Maco Maduao Concepcion 14.21
Mabini Golden Valley Concepcion 10.13
Mabini Balayong Pangibiran 14.188
Pantukan Upper Maubog Tibagon 10.35
Laak Upper Ampawid Ampawid 26.67
Laak Makaslog Panamoren 10.182
Sub Total 349.27
UDP declared protected watershed co-management areas
Maragusan Magtinago Katipunan 26.00
Maragusan New Negros Katipunan 214.00
New Bataan Pagsilaan Andap 138.42
New Bataan Cabinuangan 183.00
New Bataan Fatima 326.00
New Bataan Mapaso San Roque 38.33
Nabunturan San Roque 199.20
Nabunturan San Isidro 571.50
Mabini Cabuyoan 223.00
Maco Patari Manipongol 161.00
Maco Mapaang 77.00
Pantukan Tibagon 727.00
Sub Total 2,884.45
TOTAL 3,233.72

Source: PENRO & MLGU-MENRO, Compostela Valley (based on 2015 data gathered)

Furthermore, mineral lands of which the province is known for its abundant gold deposits are situated within the production and protection forests. Data from the DENR XI and the Municipal Planning and Development Offices (MPDOs), showed a total of 175.3595 square kilometers of land area with mining and quarrying activities. Some 2,449.9538 square kilometers as recorded in the archives of Mines and Geo-Science Bureau are with applications for Mineral Production Sharing Agreement (MPSA) and Exploration Permit (MGB 2007).


The province has rich deposits of metallic and non-metallic mineral resources. Metallic resources include gold, silver, copper and iron among others with both large and small-scale mining operations present. Total revenue of Php 98,495,748.55 was generated from these mineral resources from the period 2008 to 2015.

Small-scale mining is more on gold and silver extraction and or exploration.  The gold rush in Mt. Diwata, Monkayo is the most famous but the operation also thrives in the municipalities of Maco, Maragusan, Nabunturan, New Bataan, and Pantukan where nine (9) People’s Small Scale Mining Areas  were declared as “Minahan Ng Bayan” totaling 667.7786 hectares (Table 33)

Due to the huge reseve of gold in the previously mentioned municipalities, MGB declared these municipalities or Compostela Valley Province as a whole as the Gold District in the Davao Region (Table 34).

Table 33. Declared People’s Small Scale Mining Areas, Compostela Valley Province

LOCATION AREA (in hectare)
1. Sitio Lumanggang, Barangay New Leyte,Maco,
81 hectares
2. Sitio Tuburan, Tandik, Maragusan/
BagongSilang, Panoraon, Maco, ComVal
81 hectares
3. Puroks 1 to 8, Barangay Panoraon,
81 hectares
4. Sitio Diat, Barangay Napnapan, Pantukan,
81 hectares
5. Sitio Biasong, Barangay Napnapan,
81 hectares
6. Sitio Boringot, Barangay Napnapan, Pantukan,
81 hectares
7. Anogkot, Barangay Araibo, Pantukan, Comval 81 hectares
8. Barangay Tandawan, New Bataan, Comval 81 hectares
9. Sitio Inupoan, Barangay Mainit,
81 hectares

Source: PENRO-LGU, Compostela Valley Province (based on 2015 data gathered)

Gold mining activities began to soar in the province during 1980s at the municipalities of Monkayo, Nabunturan, Pantukan, Compostela, Mabini, and Maco. Monkayo till present is the most popular gold producing municipality and it has six production areas to include: Tinago, Upper Buenas, Busay, Upper Balite, Lower Balite and Paraiso. Pantukan, which ranked fourth in gold production next only to Maco and Compostela, has the Boringot Gold Complex consisting of Boringot, Magapispis and Lower Pagsanaran areas. Compostela, on the other hand, which ranked third, has the Bango area, while Maco, the second gold producing municipality, has the Masara area covered by Apex and North Davao Companies.

The Diwalwal Mineral Reservation Area in Monkayo was among the five medium-scale operating  gold mines identified in the country. In 2006, a total area of 184,050 hectares was recorded as mining and quarrying areas. In 2014, about 158,760.78 hectares were recorded by the MGB with tenement application for Mineral Production Sharing Agreement (MPSA) and about 72,089.34 hectares for Exploration Permit (EP), for a total of 230,850.12 hectares.

Moreover, non-metallic mineral deposits in the province include marble, magnesite, manganese and silica of which the latter is found in abundance in the municipalities of Mabini and Pantukan.

Sand and gravel extraction are present in ten of eleven municipalities, with New Bataan, Monkayo  and Compostela as the top three producing municipalities. Clay and shale are also found in the municipality of Mawab (Table 35).

Table 34. Metallic and Non-metallic Minerals, Compostela Valley Province

Mineral Commodity Estimated Reserve Unit Used Average Grade
1. gold 181,745,339 mt 3.67 gm au/mt
2. copper 481,775,616 mt .38% cu
1. shale 3,000,000 mt 45% sio2
2. marble 54,000,000 cu.m.
3. silica 1,000,000 cu.m. 75% sio2
4. sand and gravel 7,400,000 cu.m.

Source:  MGB XI, Davao City (based on 2015 data gathered)

Table 35. Sand and Gravel Production, By Municipality, Compostela Valley Province

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Muncipality 2013 2014
Compostela 24,804.50 15,992.00
Laak 4,966.50 777.00
Mabini 1,077.50 750.00
Maco 4,966.50 3,870.00
Maragusan 52,313.00 15,805.00
Mawab 67,789.00 106,857.00
Monkayo 6,162.50 10,605.00
Nabunturan 22,067.50 21,921.00
New Bataan 37,883.50 19,465.00
Pantukan 6,585.00 3,870.00
Compostela Valley 228,615.50 199,912.00

Source: PENRO-LGU, Compostela Valley (based on 2015 data gathered)

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